Dating jade artifacts
Blue stars represent sites with jade artifacts of possible Fengtian origin, based on visual examination but not yet demonstrated in terms of mineral chemistry. Black circles represent sites that have identified nephrite of non-Fengtian origin. Identified Fengtian and possibly Fengtian nephrites: Archaeologists have long noted the widespread occurrences of these and other jade ornaments in Southeast Asia. In the s, Japanese archaeologist Kano Tadao 7 recognized four types of jade earrings with circumferential projections that he believed originated in northern Vietnam, spreading from there to the Philippines and Taiwan.
Beyer 8 , Fox 3 , and Francis 9 also suggested that the jade artifacts found in the Philippines were of mainland Asian origin, possibly from Vietnam. In Taiwan, it was generally believed that all prehistoric jade artifacts were exotic, until the Raman spectroscopy sourcing study by Tan and his colleagues This confirmed that the jades from Beinan, the largest excavated collection from Neolithic Taiwan, were of raw material from the Fengtian source in eastern Taiwan. Visual examination had already suggested this, because Fengtian nephrite is often a distinctive translucent green and has black spots in its texture.
This article focuses on the three-pointed lingling-o and animal-headed pendants see SI Text. To determine the geological sources of the materials used to make these artifacts, we have undertaken a series of mineral analyses using an electron probe microanalyzer EPMA at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei. Criteria have been proposed to identify Fengtian nephrite based on the mineral chemistry of both the nephrite matrix and the zinc Zn -chromite inclusion minerals For the artifacts, many of them precious museum antiquities, a low-vacuum scanning electron microscope LVSEM equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer EDS offers a completely noninvasive analytical technique 12 , So far, mineral analyses have been carried out on jade artifacts from 22 archaeological sites in Taiwan Taiwan proper, Penghu, Ludao, and Lanyu and 27 sites in Southeast Asia Philippines, Sarawak, central Vietnam, and southern Thailand.
One hundred sixteen specimens from 38 sites have already been confirmed as being of Taiwan jade SI Tables 3—7. As shown in Fig. Based on their chemistry and fibrous textures, all of these artifacts and associated jade manufacturing waste materials are of nephrite. The chemical compositions of their matrices are within the ranges of Fengtian nephrite. Chromites Cr-rich spinels , black in color, can also be detected as inclusion minerals on the surfaces of most specimens, and these chromites contain zinc in amounts equivalent to Fengtian nephrite Fig. The results indicate that all were made of nephrite raw material from eastern Taiwan.
Chemical compositions of nephrite jade artifacts. The upper shaded area encloses the chemical compositions of white-colored nephrite jade deposits from China Liaoning, Xinjiang, Gansu, and Jiangsu Provinces and Korea Chuncheon 11 — The lower shaded area represents the chemical compositions of green nephrite jade raw materials from the Fengtian deposit eight hand specimens and a nearby riverbed nine hand specimens in eastern Taiwan The enclosed areas delimit the range of chemical compositions for Fengtian green nephrite jades.
The white nephrite tremolite artifacts from Uilang Bundok UB: Otley Beyer's s Batangas collection in the National Museum of the Philippines, are shown as gray symbols. In terms of their mineral chemistry and archaeological contexts, the white nephrites in the Philippines are probably of local origin 14 SI Table 7. D Tabon Caves, Palawan 22 ornaments from nine sites: Seven lingling-o penannular earrings with three pointed circumferential projections and a single bicephalous double-headed animal ear pendant are plotted.
Further EPMA sourcing studies have been undertaken on a range of other, variously colored nephrite artifacts excavated from the Philippines and Vietnam. These results indicate that both countries have thus-far unlocated nephrite sources, used for the manufacture of artifacts since the Neolithic 14 Fig. However, the mineral chemistry of these artifacts is clearly different from that of Fengtian nephrite.
Although it is impossible for us to determine the range of chemical variation for every nephrite source in the Asia—Pacific region, given that the locations of many are completely unknown, we feel justified in claiming a very high level of confidence from the matrix and inclusion analyses reported here that the Fengtian nephrite has been reliably characterized.
Although not the main focus of this article, nephrite adzes, bracelets, bell-shaped beads, and tubular beads are widespread in both Taiwan and the Philippines. Many of these come from Neolithic contexts within Taiwan. Those from Philippine contexts are similar to specimens in Taiwan, and all analyses so far have traced their nephrite to Fengtian.
For instance, a Fengtian nephrite bracelet from Nagsabaran, northern Luzon, dated between and B. Possibly, some of the Neolithic green jade items found in the Philippines were transported as finished goods from Taiwan during this earlier phase. This has recently been determined from three separate archaeological assemblages Sunget, Anaro, and Savidug—see Fig.
During this time, the ear pendants described above appeared in an extensive region of Southeast Asia, although only one has so far been found in Taiwan itself—a three-pointed lingling-o from Jiuxianglan in southeastern Taiwan. This scenario is supported by a presence of slate cutting tools and pieces of worked Fengtian nephrite, including drilled-out cores, annular rings, rectangular cut pieces and recycled artifacts, in several Iron Age habitation sites in Southeast Asia. These cut nephrite fragments often indicate that lingling-o or animal-headed ear pendants were being made locally by using Fengtian nephrite blanks.
Where were the blanks initially manufactured? The Pinglin workshop in eastern Taiwan, located close to the Fengtian nephrite deposit, was regarded by Kano as the largest ancient jade workshop in Southeast Asia It has very large surface quantities of grooved and drilled jade discards, including drilled-out cores and incomplete or deficient ornaments and tools Fig. The Pinglin workshop might have been a major producer of the jade blanks found in Taiwan and the Philippines, but no complete three-pointed lingling-o or animal-headed pendants have ever been found there. The sites that contain manufacturing fragments that appear to be from three-pointed lingling-o ear pendants, or closely related forms, are Youzihu on Ludao Island and the Lanyu High School site on Lanyu Island, both off southeastern Taiwan, Anaro on Itbayat Island and Savidug on Sabtang Island Batanes , and sites in Batangas Province in southern Luzon.
From Khao Sam Kaeo in peninsular Thailand, there is at least one recycled Taiwan Neolithic adze that was being worked into an animal-headed pendant when discarded SI Table 1. These distributions are consistent with a multilocal manufacture of these ear pendants, despite the raw material origin from Fengtian.
Recently, cut Fengtian nephrite fragments, some interpreted as discards from the manufacture of lingling-o earrings, have been excavated in layers dated between B. Anaro is the most important workshop found so far in the Philippines because it illustrates the full reduction sequence for making these artifacts Fig. Slate knives, both rectangular and pointed, the latter reworked from Taiwan slate projectile points, were found here with the nephrite fragments.
Slate is common in the central mountain range of Taiwan but absent in volcanic and raised coral landscapes such as the Batanes and Babuyan Islands and Luzon. This indicates that these slate tools were also imported from Taiwan, where such knives and points are very common. At Anaro, they were used for grooving the nephrite before snapping, as in the Pinglin workshop in Taiwan. Experimental archaeology indicates that jade manufacture required not only high levels of skill, but also considerable labor input.
For example, 8 hours of sawing using a stone knife and sand will cut a groove only mm deep, and 1 hour of drilling using a hollow bamboo with sand and water will cut only 10 mm below the surface So far, no iron tools that can be associated with nephrite working have been identified in Southeast Asia. We suggest that the ear pendants of Fengtian nephrite in Southeast Asia outside Taiwan were made by a small number of highly skilled and perhaps itinerant jade craftsmen using stone cutting tools and perhaps bamboo drills.
The most extensive evidence for such trade postdates B. In general, the quantity of Fengtian nephrite decreases with distance from the source, with sites on the eastern coast of Taiwan having the highest quantities Fig. However, the combined distributions of the two kinds of ear pendant discussed here do not follow this trend and, instead, correspond closely with the distributions of many important but very far-flung Austronesian-speaking populations in early history e. For instance, although northern Vietnam is closer to Taiwan than southern Vietnam, positively identified artifacts of Taiwan nephrite have never been found there.
All come from Sa Huynh sites B. The Sa Huynh culture is regarded as ancestral to the Chamic-speaking Austronesian ethnic groups of central and southern Vietnam in historical times, whereas the Dong Son of northern Vietnam is geographically associated with Tai and Mon-Khmer Austroasiatic, including Vietnamese speaking groups It is thus interesting to note that the site of Khao Sam Kaeo in peninsular Thailand, which does have Fengtian nephrite, is located in a Thai-speaking area today.
Ancient jade artifacts dating back 8, years, on display in Beijing - Global Times
However, in addition to Taiwan nephrite, it has also yielded pieces of worked mica similar in chemistry to mica from Mindoro Island in the Philippines. This sourcing study of ancient Fengtian jade has revealed a remarkable pattern of pre-Indic communication across a vast area of mainland and island Southeast Asia. However, we freely admit that this sourcing study of ancient jade in Southeast Asia has only just begun; both Vietnam and the Philippines, in particular, have other nephrite sources of unknown location that were exploited in prehistory, and it is possible that some of these materials were also traded over long distances.
Indeed, one nephrite lingling-o with three projections from the Sa Huynh culture site of Go Dua in central Vietnam Fig. We are now extending our research to try to identify the several different nephrite sources in Vietnam that were also used for manufacturing many of the lingling-o and animal-headed pendants found on the Asian mainland. We thank the following for supporting this study: Good Websites and Sources on Chinese Art: China --Art History Resources art-and-archaeology. Cultural China site with nice photos cultural-china.
Links in this Website: Revered for its hardness and texture, jade symbolizes the cosmos, wealth, political power, security, good health and strength. In China, jade cicadas have been placed on the tongue of the dead to speed resurrection; jade pigs symbolize prosperity, jade disks represent heaven and a piece of jade enclosed within a square signifies the earth.
Confucian scholars compared the 11 virtues of jade as models for human behavior. Confucius himself equated the stone with intelligence, truth, loyalty, justice, purity and humanity, and he used the stone to symbolize the idea of junzi , the noble or superior man. Taoist alchemists mixed up elixirs with powdered jade that they hoped would make them immortal. The emperors communicated with the gods through jade disks; and Chinese poets called the skin of beautiful woman "fragrant jade" and the part of her body which men love so much to enter, her "jade gate.
Jade gifts were commonly given as bribes to corrupt Chinese officials. In athletic events second and third place contestants were given trophies of gold and ivory, while the winners were awarded jade. Jade is prescribed as a medicine and credited with having miraculous powers and the ability to ward off evil and bad luck.
I have heard when it touches your skin, it sucks out the poisons. Ming-era jade fish Nephrite is a silicate of calcium and magnesium. What distinguishes nephrite from other rocks with the same chemical composition is its needle-shaped grains and tightly interwoven, fluted, fibrous structure. Nephrite is stronger than most steels and has waxy, fibrous texture.
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Nephrite comes in a variety of colors, including its most prized color yellowish-white "mutton fat," long cherished by Chinese carvers and collectors. Without impurities nephrite is snowy white. The presence of magnesium and iron produce a bluish white color. Yellow is produced by ferric ion, brown by hematite and grey and black by graphite. Nephrite is more abundant than jadeite and is found mostly in dolomitic marbles and serpentised ulramfics. It was first discovered by Chinese, who regarded it as very rare material and went through great trouble to obtain it. Boulder-size deposits exist in British Columbia and Australia.
The only expense is transported them. According to the Guinness Book of Records, the largest piece of jade is a piece of nephrite found in the Yukon Territory of Canada that weighed tons. Jadeite is a silicate of sodium and aluminum. It is generally shinier and slightly heavier and harder than nephrite but not as tough. About 90 percent of the worlds jadeite comes from Myanmar. The first shipments of the stone from Burma to China arrived in , and has been greatly valued since then.
The ancient Chinese did not make a fine distinction between true jade and jade simulates. Common jade simulates fall into four classes: Quartz group specimens, such as the transparent colorless rock crystal known to the ancient Chinese as "aquajade," are the most observed form of jade stimulant. Carnelian, known as "red jade" in antiquity, is ideal for carving. Variations of iron content in jadeite can produce brownish-red, dark green or lavender hues.
White translucent jade is highly prized. Green jadeite gets its green color from the element chromium. The most prized jadeite is translucent, emerald green jade known as "Imperial jade. The dye penetrates the cracks between the jade crystals and buyers are easily fooled. With bad ones the color seems to 'float' on the surface of the stone, indicating the dye has not penetrated deeply. The Chinese character for jade, "fei-ts'ui, "represents two species of kingfisher with feathers whose colors are similar to those of brownish-red and emerald green jadeite.
Green jade plate The sources of ancient neolithic jades is unknown. Most of the nephrite jades from the Shang Dynasty B. C onward originated in dolomite deposits in the Kunlun Mountains in Xinjiang Province near western Tibet. Since most of this jade came from the Ho-t'ien Hotan District, it was called "Ho-t'ien jade. Some of the highest quality jade in Chinamost notably the whitish mutton fat jadecomes from an area along the banks of the Yulong Kashgar River near Hotan.
Dating jade artifacts
Two-thousand-year-old historical records refer to a Jade Road from the area. Many gifts presented to emperor have been made with Hotan jade. One piece of Hotan mutton fat jade weighed 11, pounds was carved into an image of an ancient emperor leading flood control efforts.
It now resides in the Forbidden City. The Chinese switched from nephrite to jadeite when the emperors of the Qing dynasty extended the Chinese empire in the 16th century into the Yunnan Province and the Kachin State of present-day Myanmar. According to legend the first boulder of jadeite brought into China was carried from Kachin on the back of mule by a merchant who used the boulder to balance his load.
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Nephrite found in western China has traditionally been collected by "jade pickers" who wander the shores of dry river beds picking up stones washed down from the nearby Jade Mountains during the spring floods. Jade tablet, B. In the Neolithic period B. The most common ornamentsround pi discs and square ts'ung tubessymbolized the round heaven and the square earth.
Jade ornaments in ancient China were used as authority objects and emblems of power. Ancient Chinese believed that their ancestors originated with God and communicated through supernatural beings and symbols, whose images were placed on jade ornaments. Ancient shaman most likely used jade ornaments with divine markings to command mystical forces and communicate with gods and ancestors. Jade was also used in ancient burial ceremonies. In ancient times jade was wedged or cracked from a stone and most likely shaped by artisans using grind stones.
Metal tools had not yet been invented. It took a considerable amount of time to shape, polish and engrave the elaborate pieces displayed in museums. Most are though to have been created for royalty or nobility.
Circular jades were fairly common in the Neolithic period. Although they were usually discs with a hole in the middle there were pronounced regional differences. Northern jades from the Hongshan culture B. C were transparent green in color, thin on the outer and inner edges, and decorated with images of interlocking clouds and linked circular shapes.
Northern jades pieces were mainly worn as ornaments. Southern circular jades from the lower-Yangtze Liang-chu culture B. Used primarily as ritual objects, these circular jades were about 20 centimeters in diameter with a central hole drilled from both sides. Raised edges lined the central hole, while the outer edges were flat and circular. The small arc-curves sometimes seen on the surface are remnants of the cutting and carving process. Northwestern circular jades from the Lungshan culture B. Eastern jades from the lower Yellow River Ta-wen-kou culture B.
Shang and Zhou Jades. Shang-era jade tiger Shang Dynasty B. Later Shang pieces featured raised inner rims and thin outer edges, sets of carved concentric circles and images of curling dragons, fish, tigers and birds. During the Zhou Dynasty B.objectifcoaching.com/components/boynton/site-rencontres-amicales-bordeaux.php
Collecting Guide: Chinese jades
During the Shang and Zhou dynasties jade objects were important objects in ceremonies and rituals. In the Western Zhou period B. Circular jades from this period were often cut into symmetrical pieces to form sets of two or three pieces. They contained carved images of curling chih dragons, grain seeds, and cloud patterns. During this period circular jades were commonly worn by people. Materials other than jade, such as agate and glass were used to make "jade" ornaments. During the Han Dynasty B. While alive they wore jade pendants and ingested jade powder. When they died were covered and stuffed with jade.
Banners and tomb tiles were imprinted the round pi disk, which was believed to assist the deceased reach the next world quicker. In the Han period, jade objects were believed to possess auspicious meaning, their uses and functions multiplied. Circular jadesoften containing images of twin-bodied animals, mask patterns, grain seeds, rush mat designs, curling chih dragons, and round tipped nipplesdecorate buildings. Engraved dragon and phoenix patterns were popular in the Han imperial court. The greatest expressions of the quest for immortality were the jade suits that appeared around the 2nd century B.
About 40 of these jade suits have been unearthed.
Jade use in Mesoamerica
The jade suit of the 2nd century B. Prince Liu Sheng unearthed near Chengdu, Sichuan province was made of 2, jade plates sewn together with silk and gold wire. Liu Shen was buried with his consort who was equally well clad in a jade suit. Sufficient room was made for the prince's pot belly. Jade suit of Liu Sheng, B. Jade suits were believed to slow decomposition and effectively preserve the body after death. A jade suit unearth in Jiangxi Province was made of roughly 4, translucent pieces of jade held together with gold wire.
Designed to form fit and cover the body, it has the shape of a robot from s B science fiction movie. During the Six Dynasties and Tang Dynasty, jade artistry went into a period of decline. Stones similar to jade but not jade itself were used in ceremonies.
The only jade artifacts from this period that have survived are items like combs, belt plaques, hairpins and pendants. From the Sung and Ming dynasties onward, jade artistry recovered its former grandeur thanks mainly to the emperors, who used jade in official ceremonies, and scholars, who had studied the importance of jade in Shang and Zhou dynasty rituals. The imperial family and the scholar class prized jade objects that were both beautiful and practical.
Jade was fashioned into flowers, birds, people, landscapes and other subjects that were also featured in painting and poetry. Artist tried to craft pieces that incorporated the natural shape of jade stones, which were usually river pebbles. The resulting shapes had auspicious meanings.